cicil-society

TENTANG DEMOKRASI DAN CIVIL SOCIETY

Civil society (masyarakat madani) merupakan sebuah konsep sistemik atau struktur kemasyarakatan yang menjamin keadilan sosial bagi seluruh manusia. Konsep masyarakat ideal ini selalu menjadi diskursus paling menarik ditengah-tengah pertarungan sengit bermacam ideologi politik, ekonomi, dan sosial  yang ditawarkan oleh para pemikir sebagai sebuah formulasi teoritis paling urgen dalam upaya pencapaian masyarakat adil dan sejahtera.

Sebagai titik tolak perbincangan, civil society dianggap sebagai kondisi kesempurnaan yang merefleksikan cita-cita dan harapan tertinggi seluruh umat. Hal ini kemudian dihadapkan pada bermacam jalur atau aturan (baik teoritis maupun praktis) sehingga menyemarakkan proses kompetisi ideologis berupa varian-varian alternatif model pencarian yang layak untuk dipertimbangkan. Wacana yang ingin diketengahkan adalah konsep demokrasi Barat serta korelasinya dengan civil society.

Desakralisasi Struktur Nilai

Proses desakralisasi (disenchantment) pada domain perpolitikan masyarakat Barat merupakan imbas konflik historis antara kaum agamawan (church) dan ilmuan (science). Institusi gereja ini merupakan struktur hierarki kependetaan yang merefleksikan kekuasaan Tuhan di bumi dan mengidentikkan diri dengan sikap pemisahan diri dari identitas sosial sebagaimana lazimnya diasosiasikan terhadap masyarakat biasa. Akibatnya, institusi gereja ini mendapatkan banyak sekali perlawanan yang kebanyakan mengusung isu pembebasan dari belenggu ajaran-ajaran gereja yang dogmatis, tradisional, irasional dan bahkan kontradiktif terhadap bermacam pembuktian-pembuktian yang diinduksikan oleh ilmu pengetahuan modern.

Gelombang desakralisasi ini juga dirasakan pada wilayah politik, utamanya sekitar ide-ide tentang upaya pembentukan civil society dengan menunjuk kepada bermacam aliran-aliran ideologis. Beberapa diantara aliran itu adalah Demokrasi, Sosialisme, Marxisme, Komunisme, Kapitalisme dan lain-lain, yang kemudian mengerucut pada perdebatan seputar diskursus korelasi agama dan politik.

Bermacam ideologi tersebut diatas menawarkan bermacam sistem kemasyarakatan (sosial, ekonomi dan politik) yang, meskipun pada tataran tertentu memiliki kompleksitas konsep dan teori-teori yang kontradiktif antara satu dengan lainnya, bertujuan menciptakan sebuah kemapanan masyarakat (civil society). Bahwa kesempurnaan yang dicapai melalui bermacam metode dan jalur, telah melahirkan heterogenitas ideologi kemasyarakatan yang variatif dan meskipun sebenarnya sangat problematis.

Sekularisasi

Dampak yang ditimbulkan oleh proses desakralisasi pada tataran ini berupa sekularisasi atau pemisahan agama dari politik. Hal ini kemudian berimbas pada, diantaranya, munculnya model-model pendekatan perpolitikan yang kosong akan nilai-nilai religi serta struktur kemasyarakatan yang pluralis, sekuler, dikotomis dan menafikan pretensi-pretensi transenden. Diantara model pendekatan tersebut adalah Realisme dan Idealisme.

Model pendekatan perpolitikan realisme secara eksplisit menyatakan bahwa power (kekuatan/ kekuasaan) adalah faktor paling esensial dalam setiap aktifitas perpolitikan. Oleh karena itu politik dianggap sebagai sebuah instrumen menuju kekuasaan. Ideologi kedua yakni Idealisme merupakan bahan rujukan (frame of reference) Amerika Serikat selama terjadi perang dunia I hingga perang dingin. Ideologi ini menekankan moralitas manusiawi, bahwa manusia memiliki kecenderungan alamiah terhadap nilai-nilai kebaikan. Pertanyaannya kemudian adalah, sejauh manakah akuntabilitas moral manusia (Barat) dapat dipertanggungjawabkan sedangkan mereka sama sekali tidak mengenal sandaran moral yang hakiki (agama)?

Demokrasi Tanpa Nilai

Demokrasi memiliki catatan sejarah perkembangan yang berubah-ubah. Ia juga merupakan sebuah ideologi yang rentan terhadap segala macam perubahan sosial sehingga seringkali diartikan secara bias oleh individu berdasar kehendak zaman. Hal ini sejalan dengan semangat keilmiahan Barat yang cenderung menyangsikan sebuah kemapanan. Kesangsian yang kemudian diikuti tindakan evaluatif kritis dan diakhiri dengan penemuan teori-teori baru yang seringkali mengeliminir teori-teori lama.

Inilah salah satu ciri khas masyarakat progresif ala Barat, sebuah paradigma yang menitikberatkan superioritas rasio atau inderawi terhadap pencarian hakekat kebenaran. Karena berasal dari olah pikir inderawi, maka orientasi civil society ala Barat adalah struktur kemasyarakatan yang dibangun di atas pilar-pilar pemikiran yang bersifat empirik, positif dan logis namun rentan terhadap perubahan temporal atau bahkan total (revolusi). Karenanya, problem relatifitas dan aplikabilitas civil society ini sering dipertanyakan.

Demokrasi Barat

Demokrasi Barat merupakan salah satu konsepsi pemikiran politik modern yang berupaya memberikan arahan-arahan teoritis disertai elemen-elemen pendukung lainnya. Hal tersebut guna menciptakan civil society yang bermuara pada satu proposisi yang menyatakan bahwa rakyat merupakan unsur tunggal pemilik dan penentu kekuasaan (power). Jargon yang sering diteriakkan adalah; pemerintahan dari, oleh dan untuk rakyat. Ini berarti bahwa rakyat adalah elemen terpenting dalam setiap pemerintahan demokratis, suara rakyat adalah suara Tuhan.

Nampaknya konsep demokrasi Barat ini sejalan parallel dengan semangat pendekatan perpolitikan yang ditawarkan oleh kaum realis dan idealis. Titik terpentingnya adalah pertama, asumsi yang menyatakan bahwa kekuasaan (power) merupakan tujuan akhir dari setiap aktifitas perpolitikan dan karenanya harus diraih dengan segala cara. Kedua; manusia mampu menentukan kebaikan untuk diri mereka sendiri tanpa pertolongan dari unsur apapun dan manapun.

Sikap pertama menegaskan betapa kotor ranah perpolitikan dunia. Ini karena setiap individu dituntut untuk megejar dan mempertahankan kepentingan (interest) kekuasaanya tanpa mengindahkan norma-norma kemanusian. Sikap kedua –(over) confidence- ini menandaskan kemampuan individual manusia untuk mengklasifikasikan yang baik dari yang tidak baik dan menafikan worldview  (pandangan hidup) teologis sebagai format rujukan tertinggi.

Maka sekali lagi kita boleh bertanya, sejauh manakah kekuatan individu, yang rentan terhadap bermacam perubahan yang diakibatkan oleh faktor-faktor psikologis, afektif, dan lain-lain, mampu menentukan moralitas pribadi dan masyarakatnya? Maka paradigma demokrasi Barat diatas layak untuk dikritisi (disalahkan). Kekhawatiran yang muncul kemudian adalah bahwa sebuah struktur worldview  yang salah akan melahirkan person yang memiliki cara pandang dan tindakan yang salah pula. Demokrasi tanpa nilai (religi) tentu akan melahirkan civil society yang kosong akan orientasi nilai pula, naudzubillah.

Rasulullah dan Civil Society

Realita di atas sangat kontras dengan paradigma Islam yang mengakui konsep kemapanan tauhid sebagai satu-satunya landasan nilai dan worldview  yang mampu menegaskan dirinya selalu relevan, tidak terbatas ruang dan waktu. Konsepsi civil society pada hakikatnya memiliki preseden historis dalam sejarah peradaban Islam. Hal tersebut juga telah diaplikasikan secara gamblang oleh Nabi Muhammad SAW ketika beliau melaksanakan hijrah dari Mekkah ke Madinah. Beberapa struktur fundamental Masyarakat Madani telah diinisiasikan secara sistematis oleh Rasullullah SAW. Beberapa diantaranya adalah Bai’at (social contract), penandatanganan Piagam Madinah, dan konsolidasi internal kaum muslimin.

Konsep Bai’at mirip dengan konsep kontrak sosial. Ketika itu, beberapa orang dari kaum muslimin Madinah menyatakan keislaman. Mereka juga membaiat Nabi sebagai seorang pemimpin yang harus dilindungi dari setiap ancaman dan bahaya. Piagam Madinah secara eksplisit mengakui dimensi persamaan seluruh individu dihadapan hukum Islam, kebebasan beragama, dan pakta persekutuan dengan masyarakat non-muslim (Yahudi dan Arab Paganisme).

Kemudian konsolidasi internal kaum muslim ditunjukkan dengan integrasi kaum Muhajirin dan Anshar dalam satu kesatuan Ukhuwwah Islamiyyah. Inilah pioneer institusi politik dan sosial masyarakat madani yang pernah tercatat dalam sejarah manusia 14 abad yang lalu. Sekali lagi, sistem kemasyarakatan dengan pondasi tauhid ini memformulasikan beberapa elemen asasi diantaranya persamaan, kebebasan dan persaudaraan. Pada poin ini, Islam dan demokrasi menemukan titik korelasi yang harmonis. Keduanya mengakui ketiga elemen diatas sebagai bagian dari unsur-unsur terpenting bagi pembentukan civil society.

Penutup

Islam sebagai referensi worldview umat semestinya diposisikan di atas segala macam dan bentuk ideologi, maka diskursus semacam “Kompatibilitas Islam terhadap Demokrasi” seharusnya dirubah menjadi “Kompatibilitas Demokrasi terhadap Islam”. Sehingga paradigma yang muncul adalah bagaimana perspektif Islam tentang Demokrasi, dan bukan sebaliknya. Islam yang menjelma menjadi sebuah manhaj al-hayat menunjukkan koridor-koridor kebaikan yang dapat dicapai, salah satunya, melalui kebebasan berpikir. Namun, pada saat yang sama menunjukkan betapa terbatasnya kemampuan berpikir tersebut. Wallahu a’lam. [Latief/Ed.Wildi]

 

Referensi:

  1. Donald Eugene Smith, Religion and Political Development, University of Pennsylvania, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1970
  2. D.R. Bhandari, History of European Political Philosophy, 14th Edition, the Bangalore Printing and Publishing. co. ltd. Bangalore Press
  3. Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi, Liberalisasi Pemikiran Islam (Gerakan bersama Missionaris, Orientalis dan Kolonialis), Center for Islamic and Occidental Studies (CIOS)-ISID-Gontor, Agustus 2008.
  4. Joshua S. Goldstein, International Relations, fifth edition, American University, Washington DC, 2003
  5. Muhammad Hussain Haikal, Hayyah Muhammad, cet ke-19, Dar al-Ma’arif, Kairo, 1993.
  6. Musdah Mulia, Disertasi; Negara Islam (Pemikiran Politik Hussain Haikal), Program Pasca Sarjana, IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta. 1996.

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